Business Writing Center
Guide to Writing a Professional White Paper
White papers have a profound effect on readers. In one study, 82 percent of business-to-business buyers indicated that they use white papers when they are researching their buying options. Follow these guidelines to write white papers that achieve your goals and have the impact you want to have. The guidelines are from the Business Writing Center’s online Writing White Papers that Have Impact course. Read about the course
- Be clear about the impact you want to have.
- Know your readers.
- Decide on the content that will achieve your purpose with these readers.
- Complete your research if your white paper requires research.
- Create an information map of the subject.
- Organize the content into an outline.
- Evaluate the amount of information and the key terms in the outline.
- Write a title that clearly describes the contents of the white paper.
- Write the introduction.
- Structure the sections so you guide the readers through your thoughts.
- Write clear paragraphs, sentences, and words.
- Use bulleted and numbered lists.
- Write a conclusion that has impact.
- Include visual aids to help the reader understand.
- Write a list of sources if your white paper uses sources.
- Write optional opening pages.
- Edit and proofread.
- Format the paper.
- Examine online white paper examples to help you decide what you want in your white paper.
Be clear about the impact you want to have
Decide the impact you want to have. Intend for everything you do as you write the white paper to achieve the impact. Word the impact as a behavior. Start with “The readers will.”
The readers will believe their company must plan for regular recessions.
The readers will feel their schools must encourage creative students to explore their creativity.
The readers will be more willing to approach managers with needs before they become irritations.
Know your readers
Identify your readers as specifically as you can. For example, if you know you want to write a white paper for school districts, what individual in the school district will read the white paper? Consider that individual, with his or her unique needs and expectations. Answer these questions:
- Why will this person read the white paper?
- What needs does this person have?
- What might this person have difficulty understanding?
- How much detail will this person need to have the impact you want?
- What type of information will most likely have the impact?
- What can you include to draw this reader into reading the entire white paper?
- What must you avoid because it would reduce or eliminate the impact?
Decide on the content that will achieve your purpose with these readers
Begin by writing the central subject of the white paper at the top of the first page. Then write a list of the topics pertaining to the central idea that you must include to have the impact you want to have. Write only one to four words for each topic. Each word must pertain to the topic. Don’t write the detail yet. Stay at this higher level where you can look over the landscape to determine what you must include. You will have a list of a small number of topics you must include.
Complete your research if your white paper requires research
If you must research the topics for your white paper, go from topic to topic finding the research you will use in writing your white paper. Each time you record notes from a source, write the following information for the source to save you much time later if you must cite or return to the source.
- Author and editor names
- Name of the document
- Name of the publication the document is in
- Date of publication
- City of publication for books
- Publishing house for books
- Volume and number for journal articles
- Page numbers
- URL if you obtain the information online
Create an information map of the subject
If you did no research, your knowledge will be the sole source of information for the white paper. If you did research, you will now add your knowledge to the research by creating an information map. An information map is a visual representation of the subject from which you will create an outline of the contents and organization. Information map using either of these two methods: writing information on paper or using Word’s Outline View function. You can skip a step if you go directly to using Word’s Outline View function. If you write your notes on paper, you will have to transfer them into Word’s Outline View function when you have finished creating the notes.
Writing Information on Paper
The first method of recording your knowledge is information mapping on paper. This is the procedure:
- On a large sheet of paper, dry erase board, or other surface, write the central idea at the center. Circle it.
- Write the topics you decided you must include in a few words each, evenly spaced around the center.
- Begin to map the topics in your mind. Write the concepts you know pertain to each topic a fair distance from the topic, but leaving room on all sides to write more. Draw lines from the topics to each concept.
- Each concept will have sub-concepts that pertain to it. Write the sub-concepts and draw lines from the main concepts to the sub-concepts.
- Continue this progression, adding as many sub-concepts as you must to cover everything you must include in the white paper.
- Once you have exhausted all the areas of exploration, you will have a mind map of the central idea. The mind map should make sense to you.
An example information map follows. Notice that it includes only one to four words. Prefer one or two words. Use the smallest number of words that represent the topic or concept.
Writing Information Using Microsoft Word
The second way to create notes of information you want to include in the white paper is through using Microsoft Word’s Outline View function. You should use Word’s styles and Outline View in all your business writing. Follow this procedure to use Word’s Outline View to create notes for your white paper:
- Open Microsoft Word and click on the “View” tab in the ribbon menu across the top of the screen.
- In the “View” tab to the far left of the ribbon, you will see “Outline.” Click on it.
- Click on “Outlining” in the menu across the top of the screen. You will see the Outline View options in the ribbon across the top of the screen.
- In the text area of the screen, you will see a circle with a line under it. To the right, type the central idea of your white paper in a few words.
- Below the word “Outlining” on the menu across the top of the screen, you will see a “Level 1.” That shows the text on that line is at a Heading 1 level. Level 1 headings are the main ideas. You will later change the central idea into a title.
- Press “Enter” to start a new line under the central idea.
- Type each topic you decided you must have in the white paper in a column. All of those topics are now at Level 1. The style for each is Heading 1. To show just the Level 1 topics, click on “Level 1” beside “Show Level.”
- Start to map out what you must have in the white paper to have the impact you want to have on the reader. Add concepts under each topic by pressing “Enter” to make a new line and typing a few words for each concept.
- For each of these concepts that pertain to a Level 1 topic, change the level of the concept to “Level 2” by changing the number under “Outlining.” Click on the down arrow by the level to change it.
- If you have a concept that fits under one of the Level 2 concepts, press “Enter” to make a new line under the Level 2 concept and type a few words about the sub-concept. Change the level of this concept to a Level 3.
- If you want to move a topic or concept, click on the plus or minus sign to the left of the topic or concept and hold it down. Drag the topic or concept up or down in the list. Change the level of the topic or concept to fit your conception of the level it should be at. When you drag a topic or concept to another location, all the lower-level concepts will go with it, in order. For example, if you change the location for a Level 1 topic, all the Level 2, 3, and 4 concepts under it will relocate with it.
- Keep adding concepts in this way. For example, you might add one under the first topic, then remember a concept you want under another topic so you type that in, then realize you have a third concept you must include, so you insert it where you need it. You will go through this process as you recall concepts until you have all the topics and concepts in the Outline View.
- For longer white papers, you may have four or five levels. The most detailed level will be the “Bodytext” level. It will not have a heading assigned to it. In your styles, designate the body text as “Normal.” As you are brainstorming ideas, you may write more Bodytext details as they come to you. If you do, put them in the outline and designate them as “Bodytext.”
- Once you have exhausted all the areas of exploration, you will have a mind map of the central idea. When you look at it, the mind map should make sense to you.
You now have a clear, well-organized structure for your white paper. The structure has well-defined sections that support your position or perspective. Each section will have a level designation: Level 1, Level 2, and so on. The words at each level are designated as headings in Word’s Outline View. Level 1 is Heading 1. Level 2 is Heading 2.Change the view option to “Print Layout” in the “View” tab. You will see the clear outline of your white paper.
Organize the content into an outline
If you information mapped on paper, follow the instructions in the section titled “Writing Information Using Microsoft Word” above to enter the information from your paper or dry erase into Outline View. Designate the information levels so the resulting notes fit your conception of the central idea. The major topics should be Level 1 so the words are in the Heading 1 style. The concepts explaining the topics should be Level 2 so the words are in the Heading 2 style. You may have Level 3 and Level 4 concepts.After you have all your notes with designated levels in Outline View, you are ready to organize the white paper. It will be easier for you to see the big picture of the organization if you look first at only the Level 1 topics, then the Level 2 topics, then the Level 3 topics, and so on. Follow this procedure:
- Start in Outline View.
- On the ribbon menu at the top of the screen, you will see “Show Level:” and a level number to the left. Click on the down arrow to the right of the level number and select Level 1.
- You will see the Level 1 topics. Organize them to fit your conception of the organization that will be clearest for the reader and will best represent the subject of your white paper. To move the topics, click on the plus sign to the left of the topic, hold down the mouse button, and drag the topic up or down in your outline.
- Go on to organize the Level 2 concepts. Click on the down arrow to the right of “Show Level:” and select “Level 2.”
- Organize the Level 2 concepts for the first Level 1 topic. Then organize the Level 2 concepts for the other Level 1 topics.
- As you organize, you may find yourself moving concepts from one Level 1 topic to another. Move the topics and concepts freely to create a well-organized outline. Change the outline levels to fit your conception of the organization. For example, what you had as a Level 2 concept may become a Level 3 concept in a different Level 1 section.
Evaluate the amount of information and key terms in the outline
Evaluate the amount of information
You are able to see the white paper at a high level because you are looking only at the key terms for each of the topics and concepts. Think about your reader and the impact you want to have on this reader. Do you have the right information? Do you have enough information? Do you have too much information? Favor having enough but not more than enough. The longer the white paper, the less likely the reader will read to the end.
Evaluate the key terms
Look at the terms you are using in your outline. The terms are key terms for each topic or concept. They usually will be one to four words to represent the concept. You will use the key terms throughout your explanations, without changing them to another term. You were taught in high school English to avoid using the same word repeatedly so your writing doesn’t sound repetitious. That is true for short words that don’t represent topics or concepts. However, for the key terms that represent topics or concepts, changing the terms will confuse readers. They won’t know whether a different word means another topic or concept. Use one key term for each important topic or concept throughout your white paper.
Evaluate all the key terms you have in your outline. Does every key term pertain to the topic or concept? Is it the best key term, or would another be clearer? Change the key terms you have for every topic or concept until you are convinced the key terms you are using are the perfect terms to convey your meaning.
Write a title that clearly describes the contents of the white paper
Using your statement of the central idea as a guide, write a title that clearly describes the contents of the white paper. Don’t write a journalistic title that is clever but does not explicitly state the contents. A reader who comes across your white paper should know immediately what it is about to determine whether it is of such interest that he or she wants to read it. Use as many words as necessary to convey the central idea, but be concise.Use simple, plain words rather than complex, difficult words. A dry, obtuse title with complex words or jargon will make it less likely your white paper will be read. If you can write a provocative title that will excite the reader’s interest, do so as long as it clearly states the contents of the white paper.
Write the introduction
Write an introduction with three parts:
- A description of the condition, problem, or background
- Perhaps a statement of the solution if warranted
- A statement of the contents of the white paper
Begin by explaining the condition, problem, or background. Include only enough detail to let the reader understand why the subject of your white paper is the perfect solution for or perspective on the condition, problem, or background. Think about your readers’ interests, expectations, needs, and biases. What can you include that will draw the reader from the introduction into your white paper? What must you avoid writing for these readers?Your background might come down to a solution, conclusion, or suggestion: “The solution to this problem is for our company to purchase the land and rent it to our franchisees.” However, if you want to explain all the considerations before stating the conclusion, leave the conclusion to the end.
End the introduction with a statement of what is in your white paper. It will be a solution, thought, or perspective that begins with words such as “This white paper explains . . .” If your solution, thought, or perspective includes parts, list the parts. “This white paper describes the benefits of changing school-session hours and how the change can occur.”This is an introduction that has all three components:
Fatigue affects school children’s performance and feelings of well-being. It can lead to a decline in school performance, negative health issues, and refusal to attend school. The solution to the problem of fatigue in children during the school day is to change the hours schools are in session. This white paper describes the benefits of changing school-session hours and how the change can occur.
For longer white papers, include a list of the major sections, as in this example:
This white paper explains the following five benefits of a water-filtration system:
- Elimination of hard minerals
- Improved water taste and smell
- Improved health of users
- Reduced costs from using bottled water
- Favorable impacts on the environment
Structure the sections so you guide the readers through your thoughts
Your outline in Microsoft Word has levels for the sections and a few words for each section that describe the contents of the section. The words are designated Level 1, Level 2, and so on. The styles assigned to the levels are the corresponding heading levels: Heading 1, Heading 2, and so on.As you write the white paper, show the reader you are moving from one topic to another and let the reader know what the new topic is. Readers will understand and be affected by your white paper when they understand the structure of your explanation or position. Readers need the big-picture understanding of your white paper as well as the details. Helping the readers make transitions from one section to another provides the structure.
Clearly marked sections give readers the feeling the writing is easy to follow and the writer is professional and knows the subject well. You will be creating a mental map of your subject in the reader’s mind. Your reader will more likely remember your message and be affected by it if you create a clear map.You might use headings for sections. Some business writers are still reluctant to use headings, but best practices in business writing today use headings throughout business documents to help readers see the section divisions. You chose the best words for each topic and concept in the outline. Use those words in the headings. They are key terms for the important concepts. The headings must describe clearly what is in the section. Don’t be concerned about length. Don’t use general headings such as “Point 2,” “New Factors,” or other such vague headings. Write a clear statement of what is in the section: “Point 2: Build the Infrastructure” “Three New Factors That Will Influence the Decision.”Show the reader you are changing sections by starting a new paragraph for each new section and opening the section with a statement of the contents using the key term you have in the outline for that section. The key term becomes the name for the section. You will use them in the bodies of the sections to guide the reader.In the heading and statements of contents for the Level 1 topics, use the key terms for the central idea to show the reader how you are developing your explanation of the central idea. For example, in a white paper about encouraging flextime for employees, the central idea key term is “flextime for employees.” The second Level 1 point might have a heading with the key term: “Flextime Benefits for Employees.” The opening sentence would also have the key term: “Companies that have implemented generous flextime scheduling for employees have experienced three benefits.”
Write clear paragraphs, sentences, and words
After you have introduced each section, write the details for the sections using clear paragraphs, sentences, and words.
Use paragraphs to help readers organize your message in their minds. They are receiving your white paper one word at a time. Readers very easily lose track of what the writer is saying. To help the reader see the blocks of thought in your writing, break for a new paragraph each time you start a new topic. Keep paragraphs to around seven lines or six average-length sentences. You may have some paragraphs that are five or six lines and some that are eight or nine. However, on average, your paragraphs should be around seven lines.When you see that you have seven lines of text in a paragraph, start looking for the new topic. Few topics occupy seven to nine lines without starting a change in the topic. Your reader needs to see the changes. Keeping all the text in long paragraphs makes it necessary for the reader to create his or her own organization of the divisions to understand the parts of the thought. Do that work for the readers.Short paragraphs convey strength. You may occasionally have a one-sentence paragraph if a fact is very important.Each paragraph must have a key term name. That name is the topic for the paragraph. The key term name should be in the first sentence. You also may have a transition that shows the reader how this new topic fits with previous topics. You might write, “Another condition . . .” or “These influences on the economy . . .” Use ordinals (first, second, third) freely. They help readers keep track of your ideas.Keep the key term name for the paragraph in mind as you write. Limit the paragraph to the subject of the key term name. If you want to change subjects, change paragraphs. Usually, the key term name will appear again in the body of the paragraph. If it doesn’t, check to be sure you have the right key term name for the paragraph and whether you have changed subjects.
Write clear, direct sentences. Keep your sentences to around ten to fifteen words. Some will be shorter and some longer, but if any sentence is twenty, thirty, or forty words, you have too many concepts in the sentence. Try to limit the number of concepts to no more than two or three. If you have four or more concepts, consider breaking up the sentence to make it clear.Write short sentences to be clear and give your topics emphasis. Find the more important topics in your white paper. See whether you can state those topics in one short sentence apiece.Longer sentences show relationships. If you have too many concepts with too complex a set of relationships, you will lose the reader. If you lose the reader often enough, the reader will stop reading your white paper.
Use simple, common words for every concept. If you have a choice between a difficult or complex word and a simple word, choose the simpler. Write envisioning the reader sitting in front of you to ensure the words you write are as clear as the words you would speak. Spoken words are the clearest, most effective words you could use because they are the words we use when we are explaining something to someone; we want people to understand the message we are speaking.For example, instead of “predicated,” write “based on.” Instead of “ascertain,” write “find out” or “learn.” Instead of “assistance,” write “help.” As you practice using clear, simple words by speaking your message in your mind as you write, using clear, simple words will become natural for you.
Use bulleted and numbered lists
Break out lists with numbers and bullets unless the list is short or inconsequential. Don’t leave lists in paragraphs. If you must put semicolons between the items because they are longer, break them out with numbers or bullets instead.Introduce every list telling the reader what is in the list. Identify a key term name for every list. It might be something like “conclusions,” “recommendations,” or “locations.” If you can’t identify a key term name for the list and items that fit with the key term name, don’t create a list. Keep the text in a paragraph. Every item in the list must be an example of the subject of the key term name.
Include visual aids to help the reader understand
If you have data or instructions that would benefit from a visual aid, create the visual aid and insert it. Ensure that the visual is large enough to be read easily. Refer to the visual aid in the text before the place at which you have it inserted. Have a caption before or after the visual aid telling the reader what is in it. If you have many visual aids, label each with a table number: Table 1.
Write a conclusion that has impact
Conclude your white paper with the statement of how the white paper has taken care of the central issue you had in the introduction. If you began with a problem or other issue, restate the problem and follow with the solution.Don’t end with, “To summarize . . .” and a list of the topics. That weakens your conclusion. Instead, write how your solution or argument perfectly reduces or eliminates the problem. This is a good place to put a short sentence at the ending that has strength: “We can make a difference if we work together.” “These three procedures will reduce production errors.”
Write a list of sources cited if your white paper uses sources
Cite any sources from which you have gleaned unique information, such as the results of a study. Cite any direct quotations. Use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or Chicago Manual of Style for your bibliography.Begin the list on an odd-numbered page. Write “Sources Cited” at the top of the first page. You may use “Bibliography” when you list the sources you used and other sources of information that might be of interest to the reader.
Write optional opening pages
You might write a cover page with the white paper to give it a more formal feel and more attractive presentation. You may use any format. The following format is suggested in the APA Style Sheet.
- Write the title in bold uppercase and lowercase letters, centered in the upper half of the page.
- Type the author’s name four to six blank lines below the title. Write the author’s first name, middle initial, and last name. If the author goes by his or her middle name, write the first initial, middle name, and last name.
- Do not use titles such as “PhD” on the name.
- Two lines below the author’s name, type the institutional affiliation.
- Two lines below the institution, type the date you finished the final draft.
Average Retention Levels for Students Returning After Failing a Semester
Miles R. Kapusta
Littleton Community College
July 25, 2020
You may have an executive summary before the text of the white paper. The executive summary is a summary of the contents in the same order in which the topics are presented in the white paper. Each Level 1 main topic should be in the executive summary. It is not an introduction that has background information or other such information about the subject. Put background information in the introduction to the white paper.Executive summaries are not meant for readers who have already decided to read the entire white paper. They are for people who don’t want to read the entire white paper or who want to read a summary to decide whether to read the white paper. As a result, make the executive summary a true representation of the lines of thought and conclusions of your white paper. Your readers may not go on to read your white paper, perhaps because they don’t understand enough in a short summary to make it interesting.Executive summaries are normally around 10 percent of the length of the detailed white paper. However, some suggest the executive summary of a white paper should be no more than 250 words. Decide on length by determining how much you must include to inform and interest your readers in reading the entire white paper.Write the executive summary after you have written the white paper.
Table of contents
Longer white papers may have a table of contents. At the top of the table of contents, write “Contents.” A table of contents should not have “Table of Contents” at the top. Have Word generate a table of contents for you. You are using styles, so Word will create a table of contents with the words you have for the Heading 1 style headings followed by the Heading 2 style headings. You normally would not show Heading 3 headings, but you may do so.To create the table of contents, put your mouse cursor on the line in your white paper after “Contents.” Click on the “References” option on the menu across the top of the Word screen. Click on “Table of Contents.” You may choose one of the three example tables of contents presented in the window that appears or customize a table of contents by clicking on “Custom Table of Contents.”
When you finish the draft of the white paper, read through it to ensure it will have the impact you want to have on readers. Rewrite where necessary. Be fearless in deleting wonderful text that you decide really doesn’t belong in the white paper. Add information where you feel the reader may not understand. Go through as many drafts as necessary until you feel you have written the perfect white paper that will have the impact you want to have.
Read through your white paper looking for sentences that might be unclear for the reader. If you have any reservations about a sentence, change it to communicate more clearly. Make sure the transitions between points guide the reader through your thought processes. Clean out superfluous words and text. Look for redundancies and eliminate them. Replace difficult words with their simple counterparts. Reread and revise until the white paper sounds perfect to you as you read it. You should enjoy reading your own writing. If you cringe while reading, you have more work to do.Perform a readability check. Writers talk about the complexity or difficulty of writing in terms of grade level. The average businessperson comprehends at the tenth-grade level. A report written at the tenth-grade level could probably be understood by a person reading at the tenth-grade level but a person reading at an eighth-grade level might have some problems.You can measure the approximate grade level of your own or others’ writing by having Word assess the grade level and readability of your white paper. Word uses the Flesch-Kincaid Readability Index. To have Word assess the grade level and difficulty level of your writing, follow this procedure:
- Click on “File” at the top of the Word screen.
- Click on “Options.”
- Click on the “Proofing” option.
- Click on the box next to “Show readability statistics.” Also check the other boxes in the area bounded by red below.
- Click on “OK” to accept the changes.
- Click on “Editor” in the ribbon menu across the top of the screen. If you don’t see it, click on the “Review” option on the menu across the top of the Windows screen to show the “Editor” option.
- You will see a window with “Editor” and a list of areas with the number of places at which you might have problems.
- At the top of the window, you see Word’s explanation of a potential problem. Word’s suggestion follows. You must decide whether to accept Word’s suggestion. The system may not be able to register that what you have written is fine and is what you want. Choose to change it, ignore it, or have Word stop checking for the issue. Click on each of the areas in turn and decide whether to change each problem or ignore it.
After you finish going through the issues in all the areas, you will see a window such as the example below with the readability statistics in it.
Flesch Reading Ease score
The Flesch Reading Ease score rates text on a 100-point scale. The higher the score, the easier it is to understand the white paper. For most standard documents, a score of 60 to 70 is readable by most people. A lower score is more difficult to read.
Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score
The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score provides an approximate school level for a reader to be able to understand the text easily. For example, a score of 8.0 means that an eighth-grader might be able to understand the document easily. Most business documents should be aimed at 7.0 to 10.0 grade levels. Technical documents written for a technical audience will have a higher grade level.
Set up Word’s proofing functions by following this procedure:
- Click on “File” in the menu across the top of the Word screen.
- Click on “Options.”
- Check all of the boxes in the red rectangle below.
These options will check spelling and grammar as you type. Word will notify you if there might be a problem. Address the problem by making a change, looking up the problem in an online dictionary, or deciding there is no problem. Don’t ignore the messages.Finish by proofreading manually. Print out a copy of the white paper. Sit in a quiet environment where you will not be disturbed. Go into a proofreading mindset. In a proofreading mindset, you are focused on finding the errors you know are in the white paper. Read word by word; don’t read for meaning. Reexamine the sentences to be sure you see any errors. If you are distracted, stop. Resume when you have the proofreading mindset focus again.Proofread for consistency in vocabulary, headings, and structure.We recommend you use Grammarly to help you identify issues in your business writing.
Format the white paper
You may publish the white paper in a graphic design format with generous use of images, interesting fonts and font colors, columns, and other typographical and layout designs. For examples, go to the Venngage website at www.venngage.com.This article describes writing a white paper in the standard business design with limited use of graphic design. These are the formatting guidelines for this type of white paper:
- Use standard 8.5 x 11 paper.
- Use 11-point or 12-point font.
- Choose Times New Roman, Garamond, Arial, or Helvetica.
- Have a one-inch margin all around.
- Indent paragraphs one-half inch.
- Double-space lines of text, including text on the first page.
If you have no cover page, on the first page, write the title. It should be in bold uppercase and lowercase letters, centered at the top of the page. Type the author’s first name, middle initial, and last name two lines below the title. If the author goes by his or her middle name, write the first initial, middle name, and last name. Do not use titles such as “PhD” on the name. You may put the writer’s position and institutional affiliation on the lines below the author’s name.Choose heading formats that create a clear visual outline of your white paper. Set your styles for the headings to fit formats such as these recommended by the APA Style Sheet:
Heading 1 ~ Centered, Bold, Perhaps Uppercase for Longer Documents
Heading 2 ~ Flush Left, Bold
Heading 3 ~ Flush Left, Bold, Italic
Heading 4 ~ Bolded Heading Text. Place it on the same line as the first line of text. Indent it as the first line of text is indented. End with a period.
Heading 5 ~ Bolded and Italicized Heading Text. Place it on the same line as the first line of text. Indent the text as the first line of text is indented. End with a period.
If you cite sources, use a stylesheet such as the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association stylesheet or the Chicago Manual of Style stylesheet.
If you cite sources, use a stylesheet such as the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association stylesheet or the Chicago Manual of Style stylesheet.
White paper examples to help you decide what you want in your white paper
The following pages contain example white papers you may find useful to see what the writers include and how they format the papers.